Posts Tagged ‘spacecraft camera’

Slice of History: Mariner 4 Television Experiment Team

Tuesday, September 3rd, 2013

By Julie Cooper

Each month in “Slice of History” we feature a historical photo from the JPL Archives. See more historical photos and explore the JPL Archives at https://beacon.jpl.nasa.gov/.

Mariner 4 Television Experiment Team
Mariner 4 Television Experiment Team — Photograph number P-5005B

Because the data return rate from Mariner 4 was very low, the Mariner 4 Television Experiment Team spent hours waiting for each new image to appear. In this photo they are waiting for the first picture from Mars. Mariner eventually returned 22 images. From left to right: Robert Nathan (NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Bruce Murray (associate professor of planetary science), Robert Sharp (Caltech), Robert Leighton (principal investigator), and Clayton La Baw (JPL).

Murray had been a member of the Caltech faculty for about five years when this photo was taken in July 1965. He went on to replace William Pickering as Director of JPL in 1976, retired from that position in 1982, and returned to Caltech.

This post was written for “Historical Photo of the Month,” a blog by Julie Cooper of JPL’s Library and Archives Group.


Mariner 4 Taught Us to See

Friday, August 30th, 2013
The first 'image' of Mars from NASA's Mariner 4
Mission team members for NASA’s Mariner 4 spacecraft, incredibly anxious to see the first up-close photograph of Mars, devised a way to see the image before it made its way to Earth by color-coding binary code on strips of ticker tape. The resulting collage became known as “the first image of Mars.” Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

In today’s universe, it seems unimaginable that a planetary spacecraft would leave the comfort of its terrestrial perch without some kind of imaging system on board. But in the early 1960s, as NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory was reveling in the success of its first planetary mission to Venus and setting its sights on Mars — a destination whose challenges would unfurl themselves much more readily than they had with Venus — for some scientists, the question of camera or none was still just that, a question.

Bud Schurmeier, project manager for NASA’s Ranger missions, a few years ago recalled, “There were a lot of scientists who said, ‘Pictures, that’s not science. That’s just public information.’ Over the years, that attitude has changed so markedly, and so much information has been obtained just from the photographs.”

The recent passing of former JPL Director and career-long planetary imaging advocate Bruce C. Murray, 81, is a reminder of how different our understanding of the planets — and our appreciation of them — would be without space-based cameras.

This truth was evident as early as 1965, when NASA’s Mariner 4, carrying an imaging system designed by a young Murray and his colleagues, arrived at Mars. It marked the world’s first encounter with the Red Planet, a remarkable achievement in itself. But for an anxious press, public and mission team, the Holy Grail lay in catching that first glimpse of Mars up-close.

It was a waiting game that was too much for some. For everyone, in fact:


This is a clip from the JPL-produced film The Changing Face of Mars about the laboratory’s early attempts to explore the Red Planet. Credit: NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

What resulted became known as “The first image of Mars.” And in many ways it symbolizes — more than any of the actual 22 photographs captured by Mariner 4 — how significant this opportunity to truly “see” Mars had been.

Now, nearly 50 years after Mariner 4’s arrival at Mars, imaging systems are an integral piece of our quest to understand the planets and the universe beyond, playing key roles in scientific investigations, spacecraft navigation and public support for missions. It’s because of that first image that we can now look at that red dot in the night sky and picture what has become our new reality of Mars:

Curiosity's first billion pixel panorama
This image is a portion of a billion-pixel panorama from NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity that combines 900 images taken by the rover from Oct. 5 through Nov. 16, 2012 from its “Rocknest” site on Mars. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
› Explore the full panorama